C Questions

L2.Q1 : Write the output of this program #include  

main(){        int *a, *s, i; 

        s = a = (int *) malloc( 4 * sizeof(int)); 

        for (i=0; i<4; i++) *(a+i) = i * 10; 

        printf(“%d\n”, *s++);        printf(“%d\n”, (*s)++);        printf(“%d\n”, *s);        printf(“%d\n”, *++s);        printf(“%d\n”, ++*s);}

L2.Q2 : Checkout this program result #include  

void fn(int); 

static int  val = 5; 

main(){        while (val –) fn(val);        printf(“%d\n”, val);} 

void fn(int val){        static int val = 0; 

        for (; val < 5; val ++) printf(“%d\n”, val);}

L2.Q3 : Can you predict the output of this program ? #include  

main(){        typedef union {               int     a;               char    b[10];               float   c;        }

        Union   x, y = { 100 }; 

        x.a = 50;        strcpy (x.b, “hello”);        x.c = 21.50; 

        printf (“Union 2 : %d %s %f\n”, x.a, x.b, x.c);        printf (“Union Y : %d %s %f\n”, y.a, y.b, y.c);}

L2.Q4 : Print the output of the program #include  

main(){        struct Data {               int     a;               int     b;        } y[4] = { 1, 10, 3, 30, 2, 20, 4, 40}; 

        struct Data *x = y;        int i; 

        for(i=0; i<4; i++) {               x->a = x->b, ++x++->b;                 printf(“%d %d\t”, y[i].a, y[i].b);         }} 

L2.Q5 : Write the output of this program #include  

main(){        typedef struct {               int     a;               int     b;               int     c;               char    ch;               int     d;        }xyz; 

        typedef union {               xyz X;               char y[100];        }abc; 

        printf(“sizeof xyz = %d sizeof abc = %d\n”,                                sizeof(xyz), sizeof(abc));}

L2.Q6 : Find out the error in this code #include #include  

#define Error(str)   printf(“Error : %s\n”, str); exit(1);  

main(){        int fd;        char str[20] = “Hello! Test me”; 

        if ((fd = open(“xx”, O_CREAT | O_RDWR)) < 0)                Error(“open failed”); 

        if (write(fd, str, strlen(str)) < 0)               Error(“Write failed”);        if (read(fd, str, strlen(str)) < 0)               Error(“read failed”); 

        printf(“File read : %s\n”, str);        close(fd);}

L2.Q7 : What will be the output of this program ? #include  

main(){        int     *a, i; 

        a = (int *) malloc(10*sizeof(int)); 

        for (i=0; i<10; i++)                *(a + i) = i * i;        for (i=0; i<10; i++)                printf(“%d\t”, *a++); 


L2.Q8 : Write a program to calculate  number of 1’s (bit) in a giveninteger  number  i.e)  Number of 1’s in the given  integer’sequivalent binary representation. 

Answers L2.A1
Solution for
L2.Q1 The output will be : 0 10 11 20 21 

*s++    =>  *(s++)*++s    =>  *(++s)++*s    =>  ++(*s)

Solution for
L2.Q2 Some compiler (ansi) may give warning message, but it will compile without errors.The output will be : 0 1 2 3 4 and -1

Solution for
L2.Q3 This is the  problem  about  Unions.  Unions are  similar tostructures  but it  differs  in  some  ways.  Unions  can beassigned  only  with one  field at any time.  In this  case,unions x and y can be  assigned  with any of the one field aor b or c at one time.  During  initialisation  of unions ittakes  the value  (whatever  assigned  ) only for the  firstfield.  So, The statement y = {100}  intialises  the union ywith field a = 100. 

In this  example,  all fields of union x are  assigned  withsome  values.  But at any time only one of the  union  fieldcan  be  assigned.  So,  for  the  union  x the  field  c isassigned as 21.50. 

Thus, The output will be         Union 2 : 22 22 21.50        Union Y : 100 22 22        ( 22 refers unpredictable results )

Solution for
L2.Q4 The pointer x points to the same location where y is stored.So, The changes in y reflects in x. 

The output will be :        10 11    30 31    20 21    40 41

Solution for
L2.Q5 The  output  of  this  program  is  purely  depends  on  theprocessor  architecuture.  If the sizeof  integer is 4 bytesand the size of character is 1 byte (In some computers), theoutput will be 

        sizeof xyz = 20        sizeof abc = 100 

The output can be generalized to some extent as follows, 

        sizeof xyz = 4 * sizeof(int) + 1 * sizeof(char) +                                             padding bytes        sizeof abc = 100 * sizeof(char) + padding bytes 

To keep the  structures/unions  byte  aligned,  some paddingbytes are added in between  the  sturcture  fields.  In thisexample 3 bytes are  padded  between  ‘ char ch’ and ‘int d’fields.  The unused bytes are called  holes.  To  understandmore about  padding bytes (holes) try varing the field typesof the structures and see the output. 

Solution for
L2.Q6 Just  try to  execute  this  file as such.  You can find outthat it will exit immediately.  Do you know why? 

With  this  hint, we can trace  out the  error.  If you lookinto the macro  ‘Error’, you can easily  identify that thereare two separete statements without brases ‘{ ..}’.  That isthe  problem.  So, it exits  after the calling  open().  Themacro should be put inside the brases like this. 

#define Error(str)     { printf(“Error : %s\n”, str); exit(1); }

Solution for
L2.Q7 This program will fault (Memory  fault/segmentation  fault).Can you predict Why? 

Remove  the  statment  ‘free(a);’  from  the  program,  thenexecute  the  program.  It will run.  It gives  the  resultscorrectly. 

What causes ‘free(a)’ to generate fault? 

Just trace the address  location  of pointer  variable  ‘a’.The variable ‘a’ is incremented  inside the ‘for loop’.  Outside the ‘for loop’ the  variable  ‘a’ will point to ‘null’.When the  free()  call is made, it will  free the data  areafrom the  base_address  (which is passed as the  argument ofthe  free  call)  upto  the  length  of the  data  allocatedpreviously.  In this case,  free()  tries to free the lengthof 10 *sizeof(int)  from the base pointer location passed asthe argument to the free call, which is ‘null’ in this case.Thus, it generates memory fault. 

Solution for
L2.Q8 #include  

main(argc, argv)int argc;char *argv[];{        int count = 0, i;        int v = atoi(argv[1]); 

        for(i=0; i<8*sizeof(int); i++)                        if(v &(1<< } count); v, %d=’%d\n”,’ in 1?s of printf(?No count++;>






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